Types of Computer Graphics
20 October 2022
Usually, the internet users aren’t worried about how the graphics they consult are processed and displayed on their computer devices. However, it is essential to note the image’s specific design for all who would like to construct or modify computer graphics images.
For that reason, we’re going to tell you a little bit about it. Actually, there are two types of computer graphics you should be familiar with: Raster (Bitmap) graphics and Vector graphics. Then let ‘s start!
Raster (Bitmap) Graphics
If you’re used to capturing or downloading digital pictures, you’re probably familiar with these graphics, but maybe you’re not conscious of what they are. A raster represents an image by considering the graphics field as a rectangle shaped and separating the rectangle into some kind of two-dimensional array of small pixels.
For example, images generated by a high-resolution digital camera may also contain horizontal and vertical measurements of 4128 pixels and 3096 pixels, enabling the overall image to be 4128 x 3096 = 12,780,288 pixels.
So, each pixel describes standard pixel values for the picture at that level. Then, in the case of raster graphics, they typically require significant numbers of pixels, but devices are very adept at handling large numbers of objects.
You see, these kinds of graphics can be enlarged and their pixels can even be measured in order to ensure that the picture is actually 16×16 pixels (involving the white pixels at the vertices). And even if the image looks unconscionably messy, the picture will usually not be displayed at this zoom stage, so it is decent enough to be used as an icon.
Likewise, there are several pixels in the bitmap image, like digital photos, that our eye cannot discern at regular display sizes. Then you see the picture as a constant collection of tones.
On the other hand, bitmap graphics contain a “resolution” that reduces the amount to which you may amplify the picture. In fact, graphics that have better image quality numbers have higher resolutions. In certain ways, since raster image files are typically huge, you will be able to easily add the pixel chart.
The only problem is that the picture appears to display, the more saturation you apply. That’s why several formats have been developed to take advantage of that. For instance, JPEG (a standard developed by the Collaborative Photographic Specialists’ Group) is one of the best known and is designed to enable you to add variable amounts of distortion to digital photos. Same formats that you can use in apps like Photoshop, Paint, etc.
Benefits of Raster (Bitmap) Graphics
- The best option if you want to construct raster files through existing pixel information stored in a sequence in memory space.
- You can also retrieve pixel information stored in a raster file while using a collection of coordinates that enables the information to be characterized in the grid form.
- Sometimes, if available, pixel values can be changed separately or as huge sets by changing a gradient.
- Raster graphics can transform well to external devices like CRTs and printers in spot-format.
The drawbacks of Raster (Bitmap) Graphics
To build a digital image, you need to compile a list of commands that explain how to represent it. Then, that list must be saved as an image file. The machine then perceives each command and redraws the entire image as the file is opened, usually as a bitmap for demonstration purposes. This mechanism is called rasterization.
And although it seems like too complicated an approach to produce a graphic image, there are several specifications for vector graphics, such as AI or CDR (already patented) or SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics), another open standard for vector graphics that has become very famous.
So basically, with the advent of new technologies, vector images are being placed in graphic file formats such as SVG, EPS, PDF, or AI, formats that differ by far from the more traditional raster image formats such as JPEG, PNG, APNG, GIF, and MPEG4.
In addition, it is worth mentioning that vector formats can be used from text editing software such as Notepad itself or more developed applications such as Corel Draw, Adobe Illustrator, etc.
Standards of Vector Graphics
To begin with, Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) is the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) specification for vector format, a norm that has been slowly implemented due to commercial entities, and even if there’s now some help for displaying SVG information for many internet browsers, their complete implementation is still relatively uncommon.
Although it is a fact that SVG is a format that seems to be basic in recent years (that is entirely separate from the rendering system resolution).
Moreover, vector format documents are customizable text, illustrating both straight and curved routes and other properties. For photos such as basic maps, line diagrams, coats of arms, and flags, which are usually not like pictures or other constant pictures, it is more advisable to use SVG.
But that’s not all, since SVG gives you the possibility to convert bitmap formats to a more suitable resolution for the current mission. Plus, it’s also the preferred medium for images that are animated. And if you’re still not convinced, we have to tell you that there is a variant for smartphones too. It is known as SVGT (SVG Tiny Version) and its graphics can calculate connections, manipulate anti-aliasing, or be shown as wallpaper.
Standards of Vector Graphics
The vector image editors provide you with a lot of tools and options such as conversion, rotation, mirroring, stretching, skewing, affine transformations, z-order shift broadly, what’s in front of what and primitives to be combined into more complicated objects.
Additionally, the set activities on closed curves (union, difference, intersection, etc.) offer greater complex transformations and, according to experts, vector images are perfect for basic or hybrid designs that require being device-independent or not required to attain a series of pictures. As an example, we have a vector-based graphic model used in PostScript and PDF page description languages.
Conversion between Raster and Vector Graphics
These conversions happen very often. In fact, the transformation of vector images to raster happens each time you’re trying to display the content of a vector file. As you’ll see the message includes the document’s commands when you access a vector file and creates the outlines into the transient bitmap that it shows for you.
The method is known as “Tracing” and to do it, you need to have the right software. At first it sounds a bit old-fashioned, but considering that years ago additional tracing applications were required to carry out the process, it really doesn’t seem that difficult.
Most vector painting software now offers designed-in tracing capabilities. So, as the name implies, by “drawing” around the contours of the raster, the tracing technology operates so that patterns and contours are formed that describe the image. As a result, we have a collection of mathematical curves that represent the vector image generated by the program.
Benefits of vector graphics
- Vector files are small in size because they have less information than bitmap image files.
- Vector images are more versatile than bitmap graphics because the graphic fidelity can be increased and decreased quickly without any loss.
- Vector image files have sharper lines compared to pixel-based rectangular bitmap graphics, so they are stronger than raster images with straight lines and flowing curves.
Drawbacks of vector graphics
- Any minor defects that a vector image may have can be seen when the image is greatly expanded.
- A static color or gradient is usually loaded with vector images. Full image (photograph) attributes cannot be viewed as bitmap graphics.